The public enterprise by which the state plays the role of
entrepreneur/manager has become increasingly popular among
most developing countries in recent years. The present study
examined public enterprise sectors of seven developing countries
in Asia to fine that the public enterprise has been quite
extensively utilized in each of these countries. The expansion of
the public enterprise sector was not confined to countries such
as India where the mixed-economy strategy of the Indian
pattern has been followed to achieve the goal of the socialist
society. The expansion was also found in those countries where
the mixed-economy strategy of the Korean pattern has been
consistently followed for a rapid economic development of their
economies. korea is one extreme example of the latter group of
countries where the public enterprise is simply viewed as an
appropriate policy tool for achieving the nation's goal of a rapid
economic development, but not for achieving an ideological goal
of the society.
The significance of public enterprise sectors in each of these
countries was also found in the strategic role they play in their
nation's economic development. The sectors provide both
physical and financial infrastructure which have high linkages
with the rest of their economies.
The similarity found in the level and structure of public
enterprise sectors in seven Asian countries with quite different
ideological commitments leads on the safely conclude that
economic ideology is not the only factor, though important, that
determines the level and structure of public enterprise activities.
The correlation between the expansion of the sector and shifts
in the nation's economic ideology over time found for some
countries begs for future research in finding possible causalities.
Given the significant level and strategic structure of the
public enterprise sector within an economy, an important
question to ask is whether of not the sector operates efficiently.
No country can afford to habe such a critical sector performing
its function wastefully,. In this sense, the present study can
serve the important purpose of calling the attention of
policy-makers, public enterprise controllers, public enterprise
managers and researchers to this critical aspect of public
The performance evaluation of public enterprises should start
with the control structure of public enterprises rather than with
the internal managerial system. The internal managerial system
amy habe been determined by the external control structure of
the enterprise. One of the hypotheses advanced in the present
study is that the control structure of public enterprises
influences the behavior of public enterprise managers to be
different form that of private managers in large corporations.
This is another area in which future public enterprises research
should be directed.
With regard to the control structure, there still remains the
issue of autonomy vs. accountability. The ideal situation in
theory would be the optimum mix which produces the maximum
social efficiency. research regarding the control structure,
therefore, should take this into consideration.